尼泊尔地震后现状及救援情况
来源: 互联网  时间: 2015年05月05日 

A cloud of brown dust filledwith rock doves rose over Kathmandu, the Nepali capital, when theearthquake struck on April 25th. The ground shook so violently as theIndian tectonic plate lurched three metres (10 feet) northward thatpeople struggled to stand. The earthquake rattled windows in Delhi, the Indiancapital, 1,000 kilometres (625 miles) away.

Older parts of Kathmandu arenow rubble. A 62-metre tower put up in the 19th century, Dharahara, collapsed.More buildings fell in Durbar square, a UNESCO world-heritage site that ishome to temples that are hundreds of years old. Both sites had been thickwith locals as well as foreign visitors. Many were trapped and died. Atleast one newish hotel also folded, killing dozens. But for the most part,the city's concrete-and-glass structures stayed up, despitenotoriously poor enforcement of building codes. Some credit is due topublic campaigns by non-governmental groups and the UN. They have trainedbuilders to strengthen the joints of concrete beams. Hundredsof schools in Kathmandu have been retrofitted in recent years. Thanks to that, experts' worst fears of a big earthquakeflattening three-fifths of the capital and killing 100,000 were notfulfilled.

Thanks, too, to luck: themain earthquake (there were aftershocks) came at noon on a Saturday, when schoolsand offices were closed and many people were up and aboutoutside. Even so, the suffering is horrendous. By mid-week over 5,000were confirmed dead. The prime minister, Sushil Koirala, predictsthat the toll could reach 10,000. Most victims are in the Kathmanduvalley, which has seen rapid and haphazard urban growth over the pastcouple of decades, partly because a civil war that ended in 2006 pushedvillagers towards the capital. The valley's buildings are especiallyvulnerable since they rest on sediment layers that are prone toliquefaction. Rebuilding the stricken areas could cost $10 billion—a hugebill for one of Asia's poorest countries.

Three days after the quake, theroads from Kathmandu were thronged with people taking food and tents tonearby villages. In Kavrepalanchok district, an hour's drive from thecapital, villagers camped in fields under plastic sheets.They complained of the stench from human corpses and dead livestock.They badly needed water, food and medicine. Two parents digging inthe rubble for the body of their 16-month-old daughter saidlocal police would not help.

Next door in Sindhupalchokdistrict, every mud-and-stone house was cracked, and many hadcollapsed outright. The government guesses that 530,000 houses are damagedin all, and over 70,000 destroyed. Almost no one has insurance. The UNsays 8m people in a population of nearly 30m are affected in someway. The epicentre was 80km north-west of the capital, in a steep andmountainous area. Landslides reportedly swept entire villages offhillside. Aerial footage shows houses that have collapsed into circlesof dust. Unseasonal rain and cold, and continuing aftershocks, includingone with a magnitude of 6.9, have left survivors exposed.

On Mount Everest, east ofKathmandu, tremors set off an avalanche that crushed at least 18climbers and Sherpas. It has been a bad time for Nepali tourism. InOctober freak snowstorms killed 43 on a lower-altitude trail. And a year agoan avalanche on Everest killed 16. Nothing puts off themost determined climbers, but a tourism industry that is central to thelivelihoods of many looks troubled.

In India the quake killed over70 people, but concern was directed largely at the neighbour. In a radioaddress heard in both countries, India's prime minister, Narendra Modivowed to "wipe the tears of every Nepali", adding that Nepal's painwas also India's. Millions of Nepali migrants live and work in India,sending remittances home. These will now be badly needed.

Mr Modi wants to be seenleading and appears to be guiding the relief effort better thanNepal's own leaders. Within hours of the first jolts, the Indian armybegan delivering aid. There is a geopolitical dimension to the help. AModi adviser talks of an Indian strategy of becoming "moreconfident abroad". That starts with winning influence in the region. MrModi has twice visited Nepal since he came to office a year ago, after agap of 17 years during which no Indian prime minister deigned to go. Hepromotes Indian investment in Nepali hydropower. And Nepal is a mainbeneficiary of India's trebling of aid over the past three years, to94 billion rupees ($1.5 billion). China presumably features in Mr Modi'scalculations. It influence has often appeared to be in the ascendant inNepal, which India traditionally considers to be its own back yard.

Several countries and UNagencies quickly promised financial and other help. So many donors rushedsearch-and-rescue teams, field hospitals, blankets, tents and medicalequipment that the main airport in Kathmandu grew overwhelmed. Within aday of the earthquake China delivered a military rescue team, 13 tonnes ofaid and promised over $3m in immediate help. It also played down talk ofrivalry, as a foreign ministry official later spoke of a wish to"coordinate positively with India in our assistance efforts".Pakistan sent tents and a military hospital, and Israel provided 95 tonnesof medical and other assistance.

As for Nepal's own government,it faces huge challenges. Rescue and immediate relief operations are nowmaking way for more sustained help for survivors. Distributing materialsfor proper shelter and ensuring good sanitation are urgent priorities beforethe monsoon rains arrive in a couple of months. The sowing seasonalso starts soon, so distributing seeds and farm supplies ispressing.

Jamie McGoldrick, who leads theUN in Nepal, worries that it is the most rural and remote areas, thosewhere the poorest,lowest-caste Nepalis live, that are at risk of neglect.Though the needs of the country side's poor are greatest, the lion's shareof foreign attention and aid goes to Kathmandu, home to the politicalelite, the bulk of foreign workers and much of the country's richcultural heritage. Mr McGoldrick also warns about weak governing capacity.He already sees bureaucratic rivalries as well as sloth asimpediments to the country's relief efforts. Others point out thatpoliticians have long been interested mainly in their own well-being,fruitlessly debating a new constitution for the past sevenyears while paying little attention to governing.

Effective local councils wouldsurely be most useful administration to have in place now. Yet Nepalhas had no local elections since 1999. Instead civil servants run things.Many are notorious for being unaccountable, corrupt and prejudicedtowards the lowest castes. Donors face a quandary, wondering how muchto trust questionable partners while rushing to help. Nepal has never beenan easy place in which to make aid useful. In this grievous emergency, itwill be harder yet.

4月25日一场地震侵袭了尼泊尔首都加德满都。一群野鸽在漫漫褐色尘雾中慌乱飞起。印度板块向右倾移了3米(10英尺),以致发生了剧烈地震。这场地震甚至使得1000公里(625英里)之外的印度首都新德里的房屋都发生了颤动。

加德满都的旧建筑现如今已变为了一片废墟。19世纪建立的62米高塔达拉哈拉塔已经崩塌(达拉哈拉塔又被称为比姆森塔,是为纪念尼泊尔抗英民族英雄比姆·森·塔帕而建。比姆森生前曾筑高塔两座,另一座已于1834年大地震时倒坍,此塔则经受了两次强烈地震考验。1934年大地震时,塔附近的房屋倒毁殆尽,而它却只是受到一些损伤——译者摘自百度百科)。在被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产的,汇聚了众多拥有百年历史的寺庙的杜巴广场还有更多的建筑在地震中被摧毁。在这两个景点都挤满了当地人和外国游客,许多人在这次地震中被困并且死去。同时至少有一家较新的宾馆也在地震中损毁,造成了数十人死亡。但是尽管在尼泊尔建筑规范执行力度出奇的差,大部分混凝土—玻璃结构的建筑仍挺过了这场地震。部分功劳要归于非政府组织和联合国所展开的公共宣传。他们训练了建筑师来加强混凝土梁的关节部位。在加德满都的数百所学校在最近几年都重新翻新了一遍。多亏于此,专家们最担心的情况——这场地震将会使首都的五分之三被夷为平地,并且使10万人丧生——没有发生。

同样非常幸运的是,主震(主震后还有几场余震)发生在一个星期六的正午,那时学校和政府机关都关闭了,许多人都已经起床并且不在家中。即便如此,地震所导致的后果还是十分可怕的。半个星期过去了,已经超过5000人被证实死于这场灾难。尼泊尔总理苏希尔·柯伊拉腊预言死亡人数可能会达到1万人。大部分遇难者集中在加德满都谷地。在过去的几十年时间里,加德满都谷地迅速,毫无计划地走向城市化,其中部分原因在于2006年结束的内战导致大量村民涌入了首都。加德满都谷地的建筑非常容易受到损害,因为它们都建立在容易液化的沉积层上。重建灾区需要耗费100亿美元,这对于亚洲最贫困国家之一的尼泊尔来说是一笔巨额账单。

地震发生三天后,加德满都外的道路挤满了来取食物和帐篷到附近村庄的人。在距离首都一小时车程的加雷帕蓝恰克区域,村民们在由塑料布扎成的帐篷里住着。他们抱怨来自人类尸体和死掉的牲畜发出的恶臭。他们急需要水,食物和药物。一对父母在废墟里寻找他们16岁女儿的尸体。他们说,当地的警察是不会来帮忙的。

临近的辛杜帕尔乔克地区,每一所由泥土和石头砌成的房子都出现了裂痕,许多已经完全倒塌。政府预计共有53万所房子损坏,超过7万所房子被完全毁坏。而几乎所有人都没有保险。联合国称3千万人中有8百万人在某种程度上遭受损失。震中位于首都西北方向80公里外的陡峭山区。据报道,山体滑坡席卷了依山而建的整个村庄。航拍画面显示,所有房子都已经崩塌,成了一片废墟。非季节性降雨、寒冷和持续不断的余震(其中还有一场6.9级的地震)都使幸存者处于危险中。

在加德满都以东的珠穆朗玛峰,地震带来的震颤导致了雪崩,致使至少18位登山者和夏尔巴人遇难。现在非常不适合去尼泊尔旅游。十月份一场反常的暴风雪导致低海拔火车上的43人遇难。一年前一场发生在珠穆朗玛峰的雪崩使16人丧命。没有什么能够阻挡那些意志最为坚定的登山者,但是这些天灾终究使得对许多人的生计来说至关重要的旅游业陷入困境。

这场地震造成印度70多人死亡。但大家将更多的关注集中在印度的邻国尼泊尔。在一场两国都能收听到的广播演讲中,印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪发誓"为每个尼泊尔人抹去泪水""尼泊尔人的痛苦就是印度人的痛苦"。数以百万计的尼泊尔移民在印度生活工作,然后汇款回家。目前来讲这些钱是急需的。

莫迪总理想要被看做领导了这次救援工作,并且比尼泊尔领导人做了更多努力。在几个小时的颠簸路程之后,印度军队到达尼泊尔开始展开援助。这种援助有出于地缘政治方面的考虑。一位莫迪顾问曾讲到过印度的一项政策是要在国外变得更加自信。而印度首先要在这块地区赢得影响力。自从一年之前莫迪上台之后,他已经两次访问了尼泊尔,打破了17年来没有印度总理愿意屈尊访问尼泊尔的僵局。莫迪力促印度对于尼泊尔水力发电方面的投资。在过去的三年时间里印度对尼泊尔的援助增加了两倍,达到了940亿卢比(15亿美元),这使得尼泊尔成了主要的受益者。(印度的援助增加了这么多)中国大概在其中占了很大的因素。尼泊尔向来被印度视为是自己的后花园,而中国在尼泊尔的影响力日渐升高。

许多国家以及联合国都迅速给予了资金及其他方面援助的承诺。众多捐助者迅速组建搜寻救援队伍,建立野外医院,捐赠毛毯、帐篷和医药设备,加德满都的主机场都已不堪重负。地震当天,中国就派出了一支救援军队,捐赠了13吨的救援物资,并且承诺将迅速提供超过300万美元的救援物资。与印度之间的竞争中国也轻描淡写。一位外交部官员后来说"希望在援助工作上与印度积极配合。"巴基斯坦捐赠了帐篷并且支援了一所军事医院,以色列提供了95吨的医药救援物资以及其他的援助。

对于尼泊尔政府来讲,它面临了巨大的挑战。任何救助和紧急救援行动都没有为幸存者们提供持久的帮助来得重要。在合适的避难所分发各种材料,确保避难所良好的卫生条件——在几个月后将要来临的季风降雨之前做好这些才是当务之急。播种的季节也很快就要到了,所以分派种子和务农工具的任务也十分紧迫。

联合国驻尼泊尔国家协调员杰米·麦戈德里克担心那些最偏远的,居住着最贫穷,最低种姓的乡村可能会被忽略。尽管尼泊尔国家边缘的贫穷地方对救援物资才是最迫切需要的,但是国外的大部分关注度还是集中在了加德满都,提供的救助也大部分集中在了这里。因为这个地方聚集了政治精英,聚集了大部分的外国工作者和这个国家大部分的文化遗产。同时,麦戈德里克警告称,尼泊尔政府管理能力十分差劲。他已经将官僚斗争、懒惰视为国家救援工作的障碍。还有人指出尼泊尔的政治家们一直更关注于他们自己的幸福以及长达七年徒劳无获的关于新宪法的争吵,而在此期间,却很少把心思放在对国家的管理上。

有能力的地方议会自然而然成为最有效的管理机构并在此刻应当准备就绪。然而,自从1999年之后尼泊尔就已经没举行过地方选举了。取而代之的是政府官员来掌管一切。许多政府官员因毫无责任感、腐败以及对最低种姓的歧视而臭名昭著。各捐助国都面临着窘境,他们都想要知道在自己匆忙赶来援助时,能在多大程度上信任这些问题不断的政府官员。尼泊尔从来不是一个可以使援助发挥其有效作用的国家。在如今这样一种紧急而又及其糟糕的状况下,想要使援助行动顺利展开就更难了。

编辑:lianghong