《GMAT逻辑指导大全》

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出版时间:2012年7月
出版社:西安交通大学出版社
定价:30元

免费领取 截止日期:8月31日
为什么选择本书
    GMAT逻辑指导大全是一本简单实用的备考用书,该书将GMAT常考题型中涉及的基本推理规则及技巧以清晰简明的语言提供给读者... [展开说明]
本书适用人群
    本书的使用对象即可以是对逻辑题型毫无了解的新手,也可以是那些虽了解GMAT逻辑推理题型,但苦于寻求推理技巧及规则的考生,该书同时也可以用作GMAT考前的冲刺用书。
主要章节介绍
    本书共分为两大部分。第一部分"GMAT Critical Reasoning 技巧篇"一共分了27小节.... [展开说明]
该书最大的亮点
    GMAT逻辑推理涉及的基本规则及技巧以清晰简明的语言提供给读者,理解这些基本逻辑常识对于解决GMAT逻辑题而言则会变得更加有效.. [展开说明]
太傻老师说
    这本逻辑书按照GMAT逻辑题的分类,对每类题的做题方法做了具体的分析,提炼出逻辑题的做题精髓。是一本逻辑备考必备图书。------聂婧晶。进入聂婧晶的博客>>
    据题型系统的把GMAT逻辑问题分类,准确把握每种题型的快速的解决方法,提高学生限时做题的能.. [展开说明]

GMAT逻辑题型分解

  • 假设
  • 支持
  • 消弱
  • 归纳
  • 解释
  • Boldface
  • Number and Percentage
  • 类比
  • 因果推理

假设题

For similar cars and drivers, automobile insurance for collision damage has always cost more in Greatport than in Fairmont.  Police studies, however, show that cars owned by Greatport residents are, on average, slightly less likely to be involved in a collision than cars in Fairmont.  Clearly, therefore, insurance companies are making a greater profit on collision-damage insurance in Greatport than in Fairmont.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

  1. A.Repairing typical collision damage does not cost more in Greatport than in Fairmont.
  2. B.There are no more motorists in Greatport than in Fairmont.
  3. C.Greatport residents who have been in a collision are more likely to report it to their insurance company than Fairmont residents are.
  4. D.Fairmont and Greatport are the cities with the highest collision-damage insurance rates.
  5. E.The insurance companies were already aware of the difference in the likelihood of collisions before the publication of the police reports.

答案:A

Conclusion: G城的保险公司在碰撞损失险比F城的保险公司取得更大的利润 Premise: G城的关于碰撞损失的汽车保险费用比F城的多,但是针对相同的车和司机,G城居民的车比F城居民的车更少发生碰撞事件

Solution:

思考方向: 影响利润的因素有很多,如果支出的费用高,利润就会降低 Defender(排除他因):G城的车辆碰撞维修费用并不比F的高,所以排除了支出的费用高会削弱结论的可能

B. 无关信息,G城开车的人不比F城开车的人多对结论没有影响

C. 削弱结论,发生车辆碰撞时,G城的人比F城的人更愿意找保险公司,削弱了结论

D. 无关信息,F城和G城是碰撞损失险费率最高的城市对结论没有影响

E. 无关信息,保险公司已经知道发生碰撞可能性的区别对结论没有影响

支持

Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers who pay their bill in cash tend to be larger when the bill is presented on a tray that bears a credit-card logo. Consumer psychologists hypothesize that simply seeing a credit-card logo makes many credit-card holders willing to spend more because it reminds them that their spending power exceeds the cash they have immediately available.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the psychologists’ interpretation of the studies?
A. The effect noted in the studies is not limited to patrons who have credit cards.
B. Patrons who are under financial pressure from their credit-card obligations tend to tip less when presented with a restaurant bill on a tray with credit-card logo than when the tray has no logo.
C. In virtually all of the cases in the studies, the patrons who paid bills in cash did not possess credit cards.
D. In general, restaurant patrons who pay their bills in cash leave larger tips than do those who pay by credit card.
E. The percentage of restaurant bills paid with given brand of credit card increases when that credit card’s logo is displayed on the tray with which the bill is prepared.

答案:B

Conclusion: 标识提醒他们自己的消费能力超过了手头的现金数额。 Premise: 研究表明,用现金付账的顾客,当其账单用带信用卡标识的盘子递上来时,他们付的小费更多。

Solution :

思考方向: 信用卡标识对于支付小费的影响 反面加强: 有信用卡还贷压力的顾客,如果用有信用卡标识的盘子递账单,会想起他的支付能力低于身上所带现金,所以付的小费就会减少;从反面加强了信用卡标识对于支付小费的影响;
A :研究指出,这种影响不仅仅局限于有信用卡的人; 削弱结论:这种影响不仅仅局限于有信用卡的人,说明还有其他原因导致现象;
C: 在几乎所有的情况下,用现金支付账单的客户很少拥有信用卡; 削弱结论:使用现金付账的那些客户,没有信用卡;削弱了信用卡和小费之间的联系;
D: 在一般情况下,以现金支付账单的客户,比用信用卡支付账单的客户给的小费要多; 无关比较:原文并没有比较用现金付款和用信用卡付款,支付小费的多少;
E:如果信用卡logo被印在递账单的盘子上,用这种卡付账的人数会增多 无关内容:原文并没有体现用信用卡付账与印制信用卡标志在盘子上的关系;

消弱

Advertisement: Ten years ago, the Cormond Hotel's lobby was carpeted with Duratex carpet while the lobby of a nearby hotel was being carpeted with our competitor's most durable carpet. Today, after a decade in which the two hotels have had similar amounts of foot traffic through their lobbies, that other hotel is having to replace the worn-out carpeting near its lobby entrances, whereas the Cormond's Duratex carpeting has years of wear left in it.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the force of the advertisement's evidence for concluding that Duratex carpet is more durable than the carpet of its competitor?

A. The lobby of the Cormond Hotel has five different entrances, but the lobby of the other hotel has only two.
B. The carpet of the Cormond Hotel's lobby is not the most durable carpet that Duratex manufactures.
C. The other hotel has a popular restaurant that can be reached from outside without walking through the hotel lobby.
D. The carpet that is being used to replace carpeting near the other hotel's lobby entrances is not Duratex carpet.
E. There is a third hotel near the other two that has not replaced the Duratex carpet in its lobby for more than 15 years.

答案:A

Main conclusion:Duratex carpet is more durable than the carpet of its competitor
Premise: with similar amounts of foot traffic through their lobbies, the other hotel is having to replace the worn-out carpet near its lobby entrances.

Solution:

思考方向: 核心结论基于两个不同酒店在同一时间跨度,近乎相同的人流量,通过换地毯的频率来确定地毯寿命是否耐用;那么人流量不同,结果就可能不一样。
否因削弱:相近人流量的假设不成立,地毯使用年限自然受影响。
选项B,Cormond Hotel所用的地毯还不是Duratex生产的最耐用地毯,说明Duratex地毯更加耐用,加强了结论,错。
选项C,另一个酒店无需通过酒店大堂就能到其知名的餐厅,说明了没有人流量,没有磨损地毯,地毯都得换,证明Duratex地毯更加耐用,加强
了结论,错。 选项D,另一个酒店替换的地毯并不是Duratex地毯,与题目无关。
选项E,第三方酒店的地毯已有15年未更换,与削弱结论无直接关联。

归纳

Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune system of mice and other mammals to invasive organisms such as bacteria. Unlike other mice, mice that are genetically incapable of making these particular cells do not show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria.
The statements above, if true, provide the most support for which of the following conclusions?
A. Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.
B. Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.
C. In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.
D. When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse’s body decreases.
E. Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals’ immune systems to fight off infection.

答案:C

Argument Evaluation Reasoning: 题干的第二句话“Unlike other mice, mice that are genetically incapable of making these particular cells do not show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria”证明当感染细菌时,不能产生巨噬细胞的老鼠体内的硝酸盐也不会升高;同时这句话取非之后暗示了当感染细菌时,能够产生巨噬细胞的老鼠体内的硝酸盐会升高或者不发生变化。

Solution:

思考方向: 巨噬细胞对硝酸盐的产生了积极的作用,即C选项表达的巨噬细胞能够使促使硝酸盐升高或者保证其不会破坏或消失。
A. 题干只是讨论巨噬对硝酸盐产生影响,但并没有讨论巨噬细胞对其产生的是保护作用还是其他作用。
B. 题干只提到巨噬细胞的提高引起的硝酸盐的细胞只是对于遭到细菌感染时候的反应,但能不能够对抗大部分的细菌感染还不能推出
D. 文章讨论的是硝酸盐的多少,而不是巨噬细胞增多或减少。
E. 文章只是说硝酸盐升高和降低的变化,并没有足够信息表明能够提高动物对抗细菌感染的能力

解释

Plan: Concerned about the welfare of its senior citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians age sixty-five and older.

Result: Many Runagian senior citizens are no better off financially now than they were before the increase.

Further information: The annual rate of the inflation since the pension increase has been below 5 percent, and the increased pension has been duly received by all eligible Runagians.

In light of the further information , which of the following, if true, does most to explain the result that followed implementation of the plan?

A. The majority of senior citizens whose financial position has not improved rely entirely on the government pension for their income.
B. The Runagian banking system is so inefficient that cashing a pension check can take as much as three weeks.
C. The price of the goods and services that meet the special needs of many senior citizens have increased at a rate much higher than the rate of inflation.
D. The pension increase occurred at a time when the number of Runagians age sixty-five and older who were living below the poverty level was at all-time high.
E. The most recent pension increased was only the second such increase in the last tenyears.

答案:C

Conclusion: Many Runagian senior citizens are no better off financially now than they were before the increase.

Solution:

思考方向: 根据文章,我们可知最终发生的结果和政府实施该政策的目的相互矛盾, 具体来说就是: 一, 65岁以上的老人养老金上涨20% 二, 年平均通货膨胀在养老金上涨后,保持在5%以下 三, 所有符合资格的老人都获得了养老金 结果:虽然获得的养老金上涨20%,但老年人的经济条件却并没有得到改善。 根据前提和结论之间的关系,我们看出:年平均通货膨胀低于5%,并不代表专门供给老年人的产品和服务的通货膨胀也低于5%,如果老年人的产品和服务通货膨胀率高于30%,年平均通货膨胀可以低于5%,但对于老年人来说, 上涨的20%的养老金却并不能抵消老年产品30%的通货膨胀,正好解释文章中的矛盾。 由此我们判定选项为C。
A. 完全依靠政府养老金生活的老年人,他们中的大部分人的经济状况都没有改善。把文章结论重复一遍, 并没有解释上述结果发生的原因,无关选项。
B. Runagian国家的银行办事效率特别低, 兑换养老金需要三周时间。不管需要多少时间, 养老金的数目不变,依然无法解释上述结果发生的原因, 无关选项。
D. 当65以上的老年人生活在贫困线的人数达到最高的时候, 养老金才上涨。无关选项,无论以前的生活是否在贫困线以下,养老金上升20%,经济状况依然会有改善, 无法解释文章的矛盾。
E. 十年内第二次上涨养老金,无关选项。无法解释文章矛盾点:养老金上升20%,经济状况依然会有改善。

Boldface

In countries where automobile insurance includes compensation for whiplash injuries sustained in automobile accidents, reports of having suffered such injuries are twice as frequent as they are in countries where whiplash is not covered. Some commentators have argued, correctly, that since there is presently no objective test for whiplash, spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified. These commentators are, however, wrong to draw the further conclusion that in the countries with the higher rates of reported whiplash injuries, half of the reported cases are spurious: clearly, in countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.

n the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is an intermediate conclusion drawn to support the judgment reached by the argument on the accuracy of that finding.
B. The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is evidence that has been used to challenge the accuracy of that finding.
C. The first is a finding whose implications are at issue in the argument; the second is an intermediate conclusion that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument criticizes.
D. The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second is a narrower claim that the argument accepts.
E. The first is a claim that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument accepts; the second is that conclusion.

答案:C

Main conclusion:In countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.在汽车保险中不包括颈部扭伤赔偿的国家,人们在颈部受伤后很少有意识去报告。

Solution:

Terms in play:

A. BF1, finding; BF2, intermediate conclusion
B. BF1, finding; BF2, evidence
C. BF1, finding, BF2, intermediate conclusion
D. BF1, claim, BF2, narrower claim
E. BF1, claim BF2, conclusion

BF1表达的内容是汽车保险中涵盖颈部扭伤赔偿的国家比不包含的国家受伤的发生率高2倍。BF1只是讲述了一个现象或者发现从而引出下文的论述,而这个发现在文中会引发一些评论。所以正确答案锁定在C。

BF2是 基于上述的consideration得出一个结论,而核心结论In countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.在文中的最后。所以BF2为中间结
论。

D.E选项: BF1只是一种发现和引论而对于下文的论述产生作用,所以不是claim。
AB选项:原文BF1下文有Some commentators have argued,只有一些argue而不存在accuracy evaluation,所以错误。

Number and Percentage

The percentage of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is higher in Merton county than in any other county. However, the percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more is highest in Sommer county.

If the statements above are true, which of the following can properly be concluded on the basis of them?

Further information: The annual rate of the inflation since the pension increase has been below 5 percent, and the increased pension has been duly received by all eligible Runagians.

A. No household in Merton county has an annual income of $60,000 or more.
B. Some households in Merton county have an annual income between $40,000 and $60,000.
C. The number of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is greater in Merton than in Sommer county.
D. Average annual household income is higher in Sommer than in Merton county.
E. The percentage of households with an annual income of $80,000 is higher in Sommer than in Merton county.

答案:B

Argument Evaluation Reasoning Premise1, The percentage of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is higher in Merton county than in any other county. Premise2,the percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more is highest in Sommer county.

Solution:

The percent of annual income in Merton﹥40,000 最多
The percent of annual income in Sommer ≧60,000 最多

A. M中没有收入高于60,000的,这句的错误是比较明显的,根据前提一,M地﹥40,000 最多,但是一定存在大于60,000的
B. M中有些人家收入在40,000---60,000,根据前提1, The percent of annual income in Merton﹥40,000 最多,结论成立
C. M中收入40,000以上的家庭数目比S多,题目中给出的是百分比,没有绝对数量
D. S的家庭平均年收入比M高,这点无法根据现有数据推出,因为小于60,000的数据没有具体的给出,无法判断收入低的人群比例。所以无法比较
E. S收入80,000以上的比M多,如果S地的贫富差距较大,80,000以上的比例大而60,000-80,000的比例较小,E的结论就不能成立

类比

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

A certain tropical island received food donations in the form of powdered milk for distribution to its poorest residents, who were thought to be malnourished. Subsequently, the rate of liver cancers among those islanders increased sharply. The donated milk was probably to blame: recent laboratory research on rats has shown that rats briefly exposed to the substances aflatoxin tend to develop liver cancer when fed casein, a milk protein. This result is relevant because _______.

A. in the tropics, peanuts, a staple of these island residents, support a mold growth that produces aflatoxin
B. the liver is more sensitive to carcinogens, of which aflatoxin may be one, than most other bodily organs
C. casein is not the only protein contained in milk
D. powdered milk is the most appropriate form in which to send milk to a tropical destination
E. the people who were given the donated milk had been screened for their ability to digest milk.

答案:A

类比对象:
Rat: exposed to aflatoxin develop liver cancer milk protein(casein)
Residents: exposed to aflatoxin develop liver cancer milk protein(milk)

Solution:

本题背景是岛民吃了奶粉生病了。实验说有aflatoxin的老鼠吃了牛奶之后也会生病。即“aflatoxin和casein共同作用才能致癌“要证明这个实验可以解释背景,只要岛民也有aflatoxin即可。
B选项:强调了肝脏比其他的器官对致癌物更敏感,但是并没有明确指出“aflatoxin “的存在,而本题答案的关键应该包含” aflatoxin “,无关选项。
C选项:关注casein(酪蛋白)并不是牛奶含有的唯一的蛋白质,与本题讨论的癌症发生的2个条件无关,排除
D选项:奶粉是运送牛奶的最合适的方式,与本题讨论的癌症发生的2个条件无关,排除
E选项:需要对接受捐赠牛奶的人筛查他们消化牛奶的能力,无关选项。

因果推理

Unless tiger hunting decreases, tigers will soon be extinct in the wild. The countries in which the tigers’ habitats are located are currently debating joint legislation that would ban tiger hunting. Thus, if these countries can successfully enforce this legislation, the survival of tigers in the wild will be ensured.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

A. assumes without sufficient warrant that a ban on tiger hunting could be successfully enforced
B. considers the effects of hunting on tigers without also considering the effects of hunting on other endangered animal species
C. fails to take into account how often tiger hunters are unsuccessful in their attempts to kill tigers
D. neglects to consider the results of governmental attempts in the past to limit tiger hunting
E. takes the removal of an impediment to the tigers’ survival as a guarantee of their survival

答案:E

Argument Evaluation
Reasoning
Conclusion: 野生老虎的存活将获得保证
Premise: 只要成功推行禁止捕杀老虎的立法

Solution:

思考方向:即使有立法也不一定能够保证野生老虎的存活
否因削弱:把立法作为保证老虎生存的唯一方法。
A. 无关假设:在无充分保证的情况下假定禁令可以成功执行。与原文前提相反。
B. 无关内容: 没有考虑到捕杀其他濒危物种的影响。其他濒危物种原文未提及。
C. 无关前提:无法考虑到捕猎者捕杀老虎失败的几率。捕杀失败几率问题
D. 无关时间:忽视过去政府尝试限制捕杀老虎的结果。与结论无关。

GMAT逻辑指导大全图书内页展示

本书目录

  • 第一章:GMAT Critical Reasoning 技巧篇
  • 001理解段落推理为CR解题的首要步骤
  • 002关注段落推理的逻辑结构
  • 003 段落推理的两种分类
  • 004 关于前提与结论
  • 005表前提的标识词(signposts)
  • 006表结论的标识词(signposts)
  • 007表附加前提的标识词(signposts)
  • 008表反前提的标识词(signposts)
  • 009 关于Argument
  • 010 理解Assumption
  • 011 假设与支持题型之区别
  • 012 关于取反(Negation)技巧的运用
  • 013 关于假设推理的两种类型
  • 014 关于逻辑相关(Relevancy)的判断
  • 015 显示中的削弱推理与GMAT削弱推理的本质区别
  • 016 理解类推
  • 017 数量词(Quantity Words)与绝对词(Extreme Words)
  • 018 GMAT逻辑推理中的数字与比例陷阱
  • 019 针对归纳题(Must Be True)中的数字陷阱应遵循的原则
  • 020 关于GMAT逻辑推理中的Market Share
  • 021 GMAT逻辑推理中的因果陷阱(Causation)
  • 022 理解削弱
  • 023 逻辑推论(Argument)的关注要点
  • 024 GMAT逻辑推理基本概念
  • 025 因果推理的四种形式
  • 026 GMAT逻辑推理常见的错误选项设计陷阱
  • 027 解释矛盾题的解题要点
  • 第二章:题型分解
  • 001 假设题型
  • 002 支持题型
  • 003 削弱题型
  • 004 归纳题型
  • 005 解释题型
  • 006 Boldface题型
  • 007 数字与比例
  • 008 类比推理
  • 009 因果推理
  • 附录一:常见逻辑谬误
  • 附录二:逻辑圣经思路总结

2012太傻客户访谈

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Jane
康奈尔大学
LLM
101分的托福Jane并不满意,明明分数已经足够的她又考了第二次,并取得了107分的高分... 查看采访详情>>
Alicia
宾夕法尼亚大学
TESOL
Alicia同学在校学习的是汉语言文学专业,似乎是一科在国内可以读到老的专业,可是Master她决定远渡重洋,进行TESOL的学习... 查看采访详情>>
张兴立
哥伦比亚大学
社会学
老天对人是公平的,在留学申请的时候,不要小看自己也不高估自己,只要你付出了一定会回报,申请过程会有很多的意... 查看采访详情>>
黄翔宇
University of Cambridge
Technology policy
09年就已经出国的黄翔宇同学在英国已经打拼了多年,这一次他又获得了剑桥的录取通知书... 查看采访详情>>
施博闻
美国南加州大学
电影电视制作
一个北京电影学院毕业的女孩,因为梦想,从文学系转专业到了电影专业... 查看采访详情>>
麦子丰
宾夕法尼亚大学
生物技术
我很喜欢太傻的一句话: 教授们喜欢的是你的实力——注意,是实力,不是潜力... 查看采访详情>>

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