1. Although today's city buses are motorized, and the first such public conveyances were horse-drawn vehicles.
(A) and the first such public conveyances were
(B) and the first such public conveyances to be
(C) but the first such public conveyances had been
(D) the first such public conveyances being
(E) the first such public conveyances were
解析: 选E。 考点：句子结构。2句话，2个连词，多余一个连词，排除ABC;D选项S+doing 缺V 排除。
2. Recent research suggests that during a drought old female elephants help their herds survive by drawing on memories to lead them to distant sources of food and water.
(A) help their herds
(B) helping her herd
(C) they help their herds to
(D) that help their herds
(E) who, helping her herd to
解析：选A 。考点：句子完整性。 B选项S+doing缺V; C 选项S S 结构缺V;D选项S+that缺V;E选项who从句缺V。
3. Though best known for writing novels, Elizabeth M. Sewell is also remembered for writing a treatise on education and for a school being established by her and her sisters.
(A) for a school being established by her and her sisters
(B) for her and her sisters to establish a school
(C) for establishing a school with her sisters
(D) she and her sisters established a school
(E) she establishing a school with her sisters
解析：选C 。考点：平行 be remembered for doing and for doing。
4. Entomologists have dubbed the insect "Superbug" because of its prolific breeding, its resistance to pesticides, and it eats voraciously.
(A) and it eats voraciously
(B) plus eating voraciously
(C) and a voracious eater
(D) and its voracious appetite
(E) with a voracious appetite
解析：选D 。考点：平行。sign：A，B, and C 三者形式一致。
5. When they realized the high costs of importing food from distant locations, some residents of Portland, Oregon, have decided to grow more food in their own city.
(A) have decided
(D) who decided
解析：选B。 考点：时态。 sign：when they realized，所以主干some residents+ did。
6. Newspaper editor and civil rights activist Charlotta Spears Bass, nominated as the Progressive Party's vice presidential candidate in 1952, and frequently declared, "Win or lose, we win by raising the issues."
(A) 1952, and frequently declared
(B) 1952, she would frequently declare
(C) 1952; frequently declaring
(D) 1952, frequently declared
(E) 1952 and who frequently declared
解析：选D 。考点：句子完整性。 原句错误：S M + and 缺V， 改成SMV。
7. Surveillance cameras often capture only a blurred image of criminal suspects, either because the suspects are moving and also because the camera is not correctly focused.
(A) and also because
(B) and if
(C) but also because
(D) or if
(E) or because
解析：选E。 考点：平行。 sign：either because+ or because。
8. The Maya of ancient Mexico placed great value on jade, artists carved it to make jewelry, ornaments, and figurines.
(A) jade, artists carved it
(B) jade, which artists carved
(C) jade; artists carving it
(D) jade, it had been carved by artists
(E) jade; artists who carved it
9. In the 1920s young painters, musicians, and writers from all over the world flocked to Paris, drawn to the various artistic movements that were flourishing there.
(B) drawing them
(C) they were drawn
(D) it drew them
(E) which drew themselves
解析：选A。 原句SVO, done 中的done作状语修饰, S被drawn to...B 选项S和draw的关系是被动，而doing表示主动，排除CD选项SV, SV结构缺连词排除 E 选项，Paris是地点+which排除。
10. Only after playing it for several days has the new guitar begun to feel comfortable to me.
(A) has the new guitar begun to feel comfortable to me
(B) did the new guitar begin to feel comfortable to me
(C) did I begin to feel comfortable with the new guitar
(D) have I begun to feel comfortably with the new guitar
(E) I began to feel comfortable with the new guitar
解析：选C 。考点：only倒装+ after doing考逻辑主语。在CD中选择，D选项feel + adv错，可排除。
11. Designed in 1606, the earliest form of the United Kingdom's flag; combining the red cross from the English flag with the diagonal white cross from the Scottish flag.
(A) flag; combining the red cross from the English flag with
(B) flag, a combination of the red cross from the English flag and
(C) flag combined the red cross from the English flag along with
(D) flag combined the red cross from the English flag and
(E) flag was a combination of the red cross from the English flag as well as
解析：选E 。考点：标点 A选项 “;”前后不是SV 排除 B选项。是SM结构导致主干缺V 排除 C选项;combine A with B 排除 D;选项form 不可以combine，逻辑出错排除。
12. In her (A) memoir, Jade Snow Wong wrote about (B) her childhood in San Francisco as (C) the daughter of immigrants as well as about her successfulcareer as a ceramic artist also (D). No error (E)
解析：选D also和as well as 重复。
13. As soon as he left public office, the former official has complained(A) that during (B) his term he was prevented from implementing (C) certain policies that would have (D) benefited the community. No error (E)
14. Among(A) the highly dramatic elements in Guernica, often considered (B)Picasso's most powerful (C) painting, is (D) the images of a human-headed bull and a hand clutching a broken sword. No error (E)
15. Miller's plan, which involved hiring (A)first-rate architects to design public schools, were (B) so successful that (C) Miller decided to do (D) the same for other municipal buildings.No error (E)
16. The new leader has captured (A)the imagination of young voters (B) and has also demonstrated her ability to (C) work amicable with (D) experienced politicians. No error (E)
17. It appears (A)that many punk rock musicians of the late 1970s were (B) more interested in shocking
their audiences (C) than to entertain (D) them. No error (E)
解析：选D 平行，sign：”than” interested in doing than in doing
18. In the negotiation class run jointly by (A)the law and business schools, many law students pursued absolute victory too (B) resolutely, while many business students accepting (C) compromise too quickly (D). No error (E)
19. Except for (A)the honking of geese flying (B) overhead on their (C) way to warmer regions, the marsh was quiet until late afternoon, when animals (D)began to forage. No error (E)
20. The consequences of assembly-line errors, including (A) defective products and production delays, could be avoided if (B) workers are responsive of (C)their (D) trainers' recommendations. No error (E)
解析：选C 虚拟 if sb. were/did ，sb would do
21. The Moscow Yiddish Theater was founded (A) in 1919 and fostered (B)some of the most daring (C) theatrical innovations of their (D) day. No error(E)
22. Some scholars argue (A) that the Odyssey had several authors, while others(B) believe that its stylistic consistency suggests (D)otherwise. No error (E)
23. George had learned (A) from Diane that her (B) and Sarah collect teddy bears, so he sent (C) them information about a toy store that specializes in(D) stuffed animals. No error (E)
24. If you want to measure a winding road on a map, one should lay (A) a string along the road, then straighten (B) the string out and measure it (C)against (D) the map's mileage legend. No error (E)
25. Diane Glancy's stories, which reflect (A) the rich and varied oral traditions of the Cherokee people,
often shifts (B) among (C) various narrative voices to create (D) a vivid presentation of Cherokee life. No error (E)
26. The hammerhead shark is (A) a consummate predator whose (B)oddly shaped (C) head improves their (D) ability to find prey. No error (E)
解析：选D 代词单复数 shark是单数
27. As a responsible parent (A), we should make sure (B) that our children getenough exercise (C) and eat (D) healthful and balanced diets. No error (E)
解析：选A 名词单复数，we是复数，a responsible parent是单数
28. Organic food, including fruits and vegetables, are (A)grown without (B)the use of most synthetic fertilizers; however, certain (C) nonorganic pesticides may still be used (D). No error (E)
29. Although (A) the cognitive abilities of birds may not be quite as (B)advanced as chimpanzees (C), researchers have discovered that (D), like chimpanzees, some birds use tools to obtain food. No error (E)
解析：选C 比较 比的是abilities
Questions 30-35 refer to the following passage.
(1) Until recently, historic preservation societies have focused almost all of their efforts on saving and restoring architecture that predates the early twentieth century.
(2) The problems posed by the physical deterioration of newer buildings, especially those erected during the past sixty years, have been largely ignored. (3) Preservationists tend to have very traditional tastes in architecture. (4) Many of them can't stand the sight of the boxy, glass-and concrete structures that sprang up allover the United States after the Second World War.
(5) Lately, however, modern architecture has found some defenders within the preservationist community.
(6) This happened when preservationists witnessed many buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s being altered beyond recognition or totally destroyed. (7) They realized that an important era of architectural history was in danger of being obliterated. (8) Consequently, they take up the cause of rescuing modern buildings from the wrecking ball-buildings that some people now consider architectural masterpieces.
(9) In several cases, they have persuaded municipal commissions to recognize architecturally significant structures of the postwar period as «historic landmarks," a designation that protects buildings from being radically remodeled or demolished. (10) Homeowners are pleasantly surprised to discover that a house that has been designated a landmark often rises in value. (11) In the end, however, the biggest challenge faced by those who want to save modern buildings may be one of public relations: they must convince people who find postwar architecture ugly that it represents a valuable piece of our cultural heritage.
30. Where would the following sentence most appropriately be placed?
This neglect is perhaps not surprising.
(A) Immediately after sentence 2
(B) Immediately after sentence 3
(C) Immediately after sentence 5
(D) Immediately after sentence 8
(E) Immediately after sentence 9
解析：选A。sign：第2句：problems ... are ignored
31. In context, which is the best version of the underlined portion of sentence 4 (reproduced below) ?
Many of them can't stand the sight of the boxy, glass and-concrete structures that sprang up all over the United States after the Second World War.
(A) War, even if they recognize that buildings like these serve a practical purpose
(B) War, although they consider many buildings built before the war to be classically beautiful
(C) War, and such people are unlikely to fight for the preservation of what they regard as modern monstrosities
(D) War, which is similar to how they feel about much of the abstract art produced in the post war period
(E) War, buildings that remain in good physical condition some sixty years after they were built
解析：选C。sign: 第5句：Lately，however modern architecture has found some defenders和正确答案的后半句and such people are unlikely to fight...对应。
32. In context, which is the best way to revise and combine sentences 6 and 7 (reproduced below) at the underlined portion?
This happened when preservationists witnessed many buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s being altered beyond recognition or totally destroyed. They realized that an important era of architectural history was in danger of being obliterated.
(A) Nevertheless, when preservationists witnessed many buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s being altered beyond recognition or totally destroyed, they realized
(B) Witnessing the alteration beyond recognition or total destruction of many buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, preservationists also realized
(C) Preservationists likewise witnessed many buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s being altered beyond recognition or totally destroyed and realized
(D) Many such buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s were being altered beyond recognition or totally destroyed, but the preservationists who witnessed this realized
(E) After preservationists witnessed many buildings from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s being altered beyond recognition or totally destroyed, they realized
33. In context, which revision to sentence 8 (reproduced below) is most needed?
Consequently, they take up the cause of rescuing modern buildings from the wrecking ball-buildings that some people now consider architectural masterpieces.
(A) Change "Consequently" to "Subsequently".
(B) Change "take" to "have taken".
(C) Change "modern" to "those".
(D) Change "the wrecking ball" to "destruction".
(E) Insert "to be" immediately after "consider".
解析：选B。排除法可以选出，A选项原句logic没有错 CD选项把原本具体的东西改得不具体，排除 E选项 consider + N + N本身表达没有问题，不需要改动，比如consider the new employees threats to the company。
34. In context, which of the following sentences would best be inserted immediately before sentence 9 to introduce the third paragraph?
(A) But even these preservationists acknowledge that some recent architecture is not worth preserving.
(B) Still, the general public is skeptical about the need to restore and preserve dilapidated buildings.
(C) For instance, in the 1950s architect Eero Saarinen designed buildings in a variety of modern styles. (D) Some landmarks of modern architecture attract tourists from all over the world.
(E) These champions of modern architecture have enjoyed some successes.
35. In context, what is the best way to deal with sentence 10 (reproduced below)?
Homeowners are pleasantly surprised to discover that a house that has been designated a landmark often rises in value.
(A) Leave it as it is.
(B) Delete it from the passage.
(C) Place it immediately after sentence 11.
(D) Change "Homeowners" to "Thus, homeowners".
(E) Change "often rises in value" to "is often worth more".
1. Both Maya and Kyle have been a journalist for many years, so either one would make an excellent editor for the new magazine.
(A) have been a journalist
(B) have been journalists
(C) has been a journalist
(D) having been a journalist
(E) having been journalists
2. By creating ponds and promoting growth of streamside vegetation, beaver dams help restore the habitats of migratory songbirds, boosting songbird population
that are currently in decline.
(A) help restore
(B) helping restore
(C) helping to restore
(D) that help restore
(E) to help restoring
解析：选A 考句子完整 BC选项：S+doing缺V D选项S+that缺V
E选项S+ to do 缺V
3. After climbing to the top of Blarney Castle, visitors to Ireland kiss the Blarney Stone, they hope to be given "the gift of gab.'
(A) they hope to be given
(B) they hope it gives them
(C) their hope is to be given
(D) which they hope to be given
(E) hoping to be given
解析：选E 考标点 SV, SV 缺连词排除ABC选项 D选项which多余，因为后半句不缺成分(S或O)
4. When reaching a tough goal, it brings satisfaction and a feeling of accomplishment.
(A) When reaching a tough goal, it brings
(B) When you reach a tough goal, it brought
(C) When a tough goal is reached, bringing
(D) Reaching a tough goal, it bring
(E) Reaching a tough goal bring
5. To avoid using pesticides, many organic farmers rely on bats and insect-eating birds, depending on them to control pests.
(A) rely on bats and insect-eating birds, depending on them to control pests
(B) rely on bats and insect-eating birds, they depend on them to control pest
(C) rely on bats and insect-eating birds to control pests
(D) who rely on bats and insect-eating birds for pest control
(E) are relying on bats and insect-eating birds for their controlling of pests
解析：选C 考点：SVO, doing结构，doing表示伴随，to do表示目的
6. By dating mineral deposits inside caves along the Grand Canyon, water levels in the canyon over time have been charted by geologists, reconstructing its early history.
(A) water levels in the canyon over time have been charted by geologists, reconstructing
(B) water levels in the canyon over time have been charted by geologists to reconstruct
(C) geologists have charted water levels in the canyon over time and reconstructed
(D) geologists who have charted water levels in the canyon over time and reconstructed
(E) geologists charting water levels in the canyon over time and reconstructing
7. Astrophysicists examined data gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope. and it was determined by them that the universe is about 14 billion years old.
(A) Telescope, and it was determined by them that
the universe is
(B) Telescope, who determined the universe to be
(C) Telescope, they determined the universe to be
(D) Telescope and determined that the universe is
(E) Telescope and determined the universe being
解析：选D 考简洁性，主动优于被动，gathered和determined都是主语发出来，S V and S V 也可以省略第二相同的S得到S V and V 结构; B选项who修饰对象不是人，排除 C选项SV,SV 排除 ; E不是determined that SV的结构，不忠实原文，不优选
8. The new tailor on Fourth Avenue steadily acquired customers because his suits and dresses fit better than his competitors.
(A) his competitors
(B) did his competitors
(C) that of his competitor
(D)those of his competitors
(E) what was from his competitors
解析：选D 考比较，his suits and dresses和his competitors没法比;those可以代指suits and dresses
9. Salmon are hatched in streams; they then migrate out to sea for severalyears, then returning to the waters in which they were hatched with amazing precision.
(A) years, then returning to the waters in which they were hatched with amazing precision
(B) years, returning to the waters they were hatched in with amazing precision
(C) years and returning to the waters where the were hatched with amazing precision
(D) years and they returned to the waters, with amazing precision, in which they were hatched
(E) years before returning, with amazing precision. to the waters in which they were hatched
解析：选E 考SVO，doing结构中doing表伴随 + 修饰语一定要贴近被修饰对象
10. Playing nightly with their bands, often for hours at a time, the endurance a rock drummer develop similar to elite athletes.
(A) the endurance a rock drummer develop . similar to
(B) the endurance rock drummers develop i similar to
(C) rock drummers develop endurance similar to
(D) rock drummers develop endurance similar to that of
(E) a rock drummer develops similar endurance to that of
解析：选E 考SVO，doing结构中doing表伴随 + 修饰语一定要贴近被修饰对象
11. If schools would have taught certain foreign languages, individual states would reward them through incentive programs.
(A) If schools would have taught
(B) With schools having taught
(C) Were schools to teach
(D) Schools leaching
(E) By schools teaching
解析：选C考虚拟 Were sb to do，sb would do
12. Although, unlike maps, globes can represent the entire Earth withoutdistortion, but they are far less portable.
(A) distortion, but they are
(B) distortion, being
(C) distortion, they are
(0) distortion by being
(E) distortion, it is
13. Although far more skilled a politician, he argued les convincingly at the debate than did his opponent.
(A) Although far more skilled a
(B) Regardless of far more skill as a
(C) Despite a far more skilled
(D) Compared to having far more skill as a
(E) Yet a far more skilled
解析：选A 考省略结构，补全离它最近的S和be，再检查是否合理, 此处Although far more skilled a politician 补全之后是 Although he was far more skilled a politician，句子logic合理，选A没有问题
Music teachers advise that, when learning to play a musical instrument, practiceplaying scales and
14. simple tunes before progressing to more advanced pieces.
(C) do practice
(D) you practice
(E) to practice
解析：选D 考逻辑主语+ advise that sb (should) do 结构; 逻辑主语的sign：when learning to play