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学会这招,分分钟拿下托福句子简化题

来源:互联网   2018-04-13 10:28:45   
2018年度太傻留学在高端留学领域稳步增长,62%的学员进入美国Top50名校;太傻教育高分学员占比高达85%以上,80%的学员获得了托福100+的好成绩,89%的学员获得了雅思7.0的高分;太傻游学境内外出团人数再创新高,项目涵盖全球知名企业和顶尖名校及科研院所。
  很多托福考生在刷TPO阅读题目时都说:“最怕遇到句子简化题,一遇到这种题就十分茫然,浪费好几分钟不说,最后连为什么错误都不明白。”

  朗阁老师们在研究了TPO里的上百道句子简化题真题后,发现了更加稳准狠的解题技巧——根据逻辑关系轻松拆解句子简化题。今天小编就把这招教给大家,包治包灵~

  句子内部的逻辑关系

  众所周知,托福是偏学术的英语能力考试,其阅读文章体裁可以统称为学术性文章,这类文章具备说理特质,行文讲究格式相对固定、逻辑严密。而高度标准化的托福阅读文章是由句子组成的,托福阅读的句子自然往往也具备很强的逻辑性。

  ETS用来考察考生对信息理解的句子更多半是句式复杂,逻辑清晰,复合句较多,从句套从句的现象也比比皆是。但换汤不换药,写句子是为了说理,自然要有鲜明的逻辑提示词整合。这就为我们快速拆解句子简化题提供了思路:寻找考题句中的逻辑关系,再和选项一一进行比较。

  真题演练

  例题出自TPO 20 - 2 Early Settlements in Southwest Asia

  Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, not only at Abu Hureyra, but at many other locations such as 'Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, where goat toe bones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding) testify to early herding of domestic stock.

  这句话乍一看包含了多个逻辑关系词,其实主干内容就是Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, 许多复杂因素促使了新经济的采用。所以该句是因果关系,逻辑提示词为lead to。Not only…but also可表并列或递进,在句中引导地点状语,点出不仅发生在Abu Hureyra, 还发生在其他地方如Ain Ghazal, also in Syria为插入语,补充说明AG也在叙利亚。最后where引导从句提及了早期驯化牲畜的证据。根据句子主干的因果关系,再去排查选项中的逻辑关系,我们就会发现:

  A. In many areas besides Abu Hureyra, complex factors led to new economies including the herding of domestic stock. 因果关系(led to)

  B. In 'Ain Ghazal and Syria, domestic stock was more important than it was at Abu Hureyra. 比较关系(more than)

  C. Once early methods of herding animals improved, new economies were adopted. 一……就,表条件(once, 相当于if)

  D. Many complex theories attempt to explain the early domestication of animals. 逻辑顺承(attempt to)

  通过浏览四个选项,我们可以发现,只有A选项句子主干的逻辑是因果关系,再来仔细比较其他部分,原句的not only…but also相当于A选项里的besides, 而原句where引导的从句内容在A选项中由including引导出。此外,complex factors, new economies, herding of domestic stock都是原句原词,所以只通过逻辑关系就可以迅速选出A答案。

  例题出自TPO 48 - 3 Climate and Urban Development

  Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside; this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually converge.

  可以看出分号后面的内容是在解释前一句,所以该题也是因果关系,逻辑提示词是due to。但是第二句即解释部分内容也说到了内部的原因,逻辑提示词是bring on, 再往后看还有cause这样表结果的词,所以这句话中有多重因果关系。总体的逻辑链如下:

  Large structures (cause surface air to slow and gradually converge)→{brought on} the increased roughness of city terrain →{due to} this phenomenon

  分析完原句总体的因果关系后,我们再来看看选项的逻辑:

  A. Until more studies are done, suggestions about the causes of precipitation in cities will focus on the roughness of terrain rather than on surface air and convergence. 做…直到某时(Until)

  B. Certain phenomena of city landscapes, such as large structures, cause surface air to slow and converge, which brings a change in weather patterns to cities and rural areas. 因果关系(cause)

  C. One reason why precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside is that large buildings that are found in cities cause surface air to slow and converge. 因果关系(reason)

  D. Studies that focus on large structures, which are only partly responsible for the increased roughness of city terrain, are incomplete in their explanation of increased precipitation. 逻辑顺承关系(are)

  浏览完四个选项后,可知只有B、C选项的总逻辑为因果关系,另两个不再赘叙。因为题目的结果部分较短,我们再来比较B、C选项的结果:

  B. Certain phenomena of city landscapes, such as large structures, cause surface air to slow and converge, which brings a change in weather patterns to cities and rural areas. 结果是带来了对城市乡村天气模式的变化,不是题目里的降雨量的多少比较,错误。

  C. One reason why precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside is that large buildings that are found in cities cause surface air to slow and converge. 结果是precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside和题目precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside是同义改写,正确。

  小 结

  1. 遇到考察因果关系的句子简化题,优先通过选项的逻辑提示词,快速排除部分总逻辑不符的选项,再根据原句内容较短的原因/结果部分,一一比较剩余选项的相应部分。

  2. 因果逻辑词

  表原因:because (of), since, for, due to, result from, as a result of, lie in, 冒号

  表结果:thus, hence, therefore, result in, lead to, so, so…that, bring on/about

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