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托福阅读长难句分析

来源:互联网   2018-06-12 14:45:54   
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  在托福阅读考试当中,大家都知道长难句是最大的一个难点,很多考生也为之头疼不已。对于托福阅读文章本来就很长,对于一篇文章也只有20来分钟的时间,其中就有12-14道题,给了考生很大的压力。那么应该如何应对托福阅读考试的这个长呢?小编认为可以从托福阅读的长句子、长文章和长题目3个方面来进剖析。

  首先:长句子。大家一开始学习英语可能都知道句子的形成及结构并没有那么复杂,后来学得了修饰,就把之前学到句子称之为简单句,经过修饰的句子为复杂句,而长句子就是在简单句子经过一个或者多个修饰之后形成的句子。考生在面对一个难以理解的句子时,首先会想到的是这个句子的生词多不多?如果有很多的生词的话,那么我们从生词开始攻克。但是如果词汇大家都认识,但是句子的意思理解不了或者读不下去,那么这时应该如何办呢?下面小编就通过例子来为大家讲解一下:

  A few art collectors Tames Bowdoin of Boston, William Byrd of Virginia, and the Aliens and Hamiltons of Philadelphia introduced European art traditions to those colonists privileged to visit their galleries,especially aspiring artists,and established in their respective communities the idea of the value of art and the need for institutions devoted to its encouragement.

  这就是一个长句,这个句子词汇并不难,但是句子理解难度却不小,原因就是因为这个句子的结构太复杂了,下面小编就带大家一起来解剖一下:

  A few art collectors introduced European art traditions to those colonistsand established in their respective communities the idea and the need.

  对于这样一个句子,大家要做的就是找到这个句子的核心主干(即主谓宾)注意后半部分嵌入了倒装句established in their respective communities the idea and the need,establish是及物动词,后面却加了介词in,说明此处有倒装,还原正常语序应是established the idea and the need in their respective communities。倒装出现的意义在于idea和need在原句中的后置定语(即蓝色划线部分)太长,为了防止头重脚轻。

  在原句中,是有人名是并列的不知道大家有没有发现,也是本句主语art collectors的同位语。其中还有一部分是colonists的非谓语动词后置定语,还一个部分是插入语用来进一步解释art collectors。

  综上所述,本句运用了多种语法结构(并列,倒装,同位语,后置定语,插入语)把主干部分分割得支离破碎,如果对这些语法结构不熟悉的同学肯定会一下子摸不着头脑。而如果能够尽最大努力把握其用法,那么对阅读的速度和正确率的提升都有很大帮助。

  以上这个句子我们就可以这样翻译:几位艺术收藏家(此处省略几位艺术家名字)将欧洲艺术传统介绍给那些被特许参观他们画廊的殖民者,尤其是有抱负的艺术家们,并在他们各自的社区建立了艺术具有价值的观念和致力于鼓励其发展的机构的需要。

  其次:长文章新托福阅读的文章篇幅一般都是在700字以上,而这么长的文章主要就是由简单句和一些复杂的长难句组成,除了句子理解外,为了更好的解题考生还应该了解文章段落和文章结构。面对比较长的段落和文章,要在短时间内快速抓住重点信息,做对题目,那么对文章的行文套路要有非常清晰的把握。下面以一篇OG真题文章Nineteenth-Century Politics in the United States的段落为例来讲解。

  In some ways the social makeup of the two parties was similar. To be competitive in winning votes, Whigs and Democrats both had to have significant support among farmers, the largest group in society, and workers. Neither party could win an election by appealing exclusively to the rich or the poor. The Whigs, however, enjoyed disproportionate strength among the business and commercial classes. Whigs appealed to planters who needed credit to finance their cotton and rice trade in the world market, to farmers who were eager to sell their surpluses, and to workers who wished to improve themselves. Democrats attracted farmers isolated from the market or uncomfortable with it, workers alienated from the emerging industrial system, and rising entrepreneurs who wanted to break monopolies and open the economy to newcomers like themselves. The Whigs were strongest in the towns, cities, and those rural areas that were fully integrated into the market economy, whereas Democratsdominated areas of semisubsistence farming that were more isolated and languishing economically.

  对于这种较长的段落,如何快速辨别段落内部结构和句与句之间的逻辑是理解的关键。一般来说,段落的主题常出现的位置在段首和段尾,但是也有例外,比如段落内部出现转折,那么要注意转折后的内容与前面相反而且是重点。

  这个段落,首句在讲两个党派的社会组成是相似的,接着的第二三句出现了both、neither表示“都”、“都不”,提出了两点相似之处。第四句出现了关键性的however,而该句以及接下来的句子主语也发生了转变,都变为两个党派的其中一个。那么,可以推断出however之后的内容与前面相反,所以段落的主题落在了Democrats和Whigs社会组成的不同之处。

  最后:长题目大家在备考托福阅读时,或者在做真题(有可能是TPO)大家会发现有些题目有好几行,其中的选项也有好几行的,这时考生好不容易弄懂了文章 的意思,又碰到这么的题目和选项,瞬间眼前一黑,这时不会做题时只好去蒙答案了,就使得大家的答题正确率直线下降。

  对于这种题目,主要的解题方法就是同义改写。同义,意味着核心意思保持一致;改写,意味着换一种说法,简单的例如替换同义词语,复杂的例如改变句子结构。下面,我们结合前面所讲的长难句理解内容来做一道句子简化题。

  The Whigs were strongest in the towns, cities, and those rural areas that were fully integrated into the market economy, whereas Democrats dominated areas of semisubsistence farming that were more isolated and languishing economically.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Whigs were able to attract support only in the wealthiest parts of the economy because Democrats dominated in other areas.

  B. Whig and Democratic areas of influence were naturally split between urban and rural areas, respectively.

  C. The semisubsistence farming areas dominated by Democrats became increasingly isolated by the Whigs' control of the market economy.

  D. The Democrats' power was greatest in poorer areas while the Whigs were strongest in those areas where the market was already fully operating.

  答案:选D

  单词:

  integrate v. 使融合;使结合

  dominate v. 主宰

  semisubsistence n. 半自给自足

  languish v. 失去活力

  快速做法:

  Step 1:根据逻辑排除A,因果逻辑无

  Step 2:根据主干结构排除C,主语不对

  Step 3:细读B和D,发现B与原句矛盾,排除。

  详细解析:

  原句的结构比较简单易懂,主语是红色部分。句子逻辑是绿色的whereas,表示“然而”。所以这句话是在对比Whigs和Democrats势力分布上的区别。

  A选项的极端词only、最高级wealthiest、because因果逻辑均无体现

  B选项表示两个党派的势力在城市和乡村地区各自自然分布,与原句前半句矛盾

  C选贤偷换主干,原句主干不是farming areas

  D选项涉及同义改写,whereas与while同义替换,逻辑对应。poorer areas同义对应原句的more isolated and languishing economically;market fully operating同义对应原句的fully integrated into market economy

  以上就是小编对于托福阅读考试当中的长句子、长文章和长题目的理解和解决方法,希望可以帮助到大家遇到这些问题时可以找到解决办法。最后,小编预祝大家托福考试能取得理想的成绩。

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